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Lukas Krüger L. Dejan Bozic D. Jeron Al-Hazaimeh J. SF Lotte. Lars Bünning L. THEORY Basic Considerations.

The Gttingen work originated in in connection with researches in theoretical astrophysics, in particular on astrophysical applications of plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics and on the origin of cosmic radiation.

Given sufficient time, for temperatures around K and electron densities below cm-3, Tf W. Kluge, W. Pfender and K. Hcker, Institut fur Physik, Techn.

Bartels et al. Lochte-Holtgreven et al. Gierke et al, Max Planck Institut fr Physik. The results depend critically on the cross sections in question, for which the earlier work of Elwert 4 was used.

The time scale in which stationary conditions are approximately reached is of the order of a fraction of a millisecond for this temperature and an electron density of cm"3, but much shorter for higher temperatures.

The radiative energy losses by impurities of heavy elements in that temperature range are due mainly to the excitation of discrete levels. The results of the work of Knorr 5 are compatible with the more recent experiments with ZETA 7 if it is assumed that the electron temperature is much lower than the value of some K which apparently pertains to the ions.

The radiation losses due to impurities were found to be relatively large in the temperature range K even for small amounts of heavier elements. The work on the equilibrium of dissociation and ionization and the energy losses of a high temperature discharge in pure hydrogen, begun by Schmidt and Stodiek, has been extended by Schmidt.

It is found that there are deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium, since the photo processes are not important because of the small optical thickness of a typical gas discharge.

Molecular recombination on the walls and the cooling of the neutral particles by impacts with the walls reinforce these deviations.

The interactions of the charged particles with the wall, which might be important under certain conditions, have not been included in this discussion because of the assumption of strong magnetic fields.

The losses of energy by radiation and by the transport of the kinetic energy of neutral particles to the walls due to recombination and charge exchange have been estimated.

The maximum losses occur around 15,K. Methods of Heating. Three methods have been studied in some detail: Joule heating by means of azimuthal currents induced in the plasma ring; high frequency radiation, in particular near the eigenfrequencies of the plasma; and, finally, forced oscillations of the magnetic field.

The possibilities of the mechanism first mentioned have been discussed by Grossmann-Doerth,9 who. Heating by high frequency radiation, and in particular, the dependence of the refractive index on the parameters involved, has been investigated by Krper.

The third mechanism was recognized to be particularly effective if the oscillation frequency of the magnetic field is near to or larger than the collision frequency of the ions.

This heating effect is due to the constancy of the magnetic moment between collisions and to the redistribution of the energy by collisions "gyro-relaxation" ;11 it has been studied in some detail by numerical integrations,12 in which attrition was paid also to the energy losses of electrons.

The equations for gyro-relaxation given by Schlter have been integrated by Schmidt12 for a simple model taking into account the free-free radiation of the electrons.

Periodic variations of the magnetic field with a frequency of the order of the ion collision frequency lead to an increase of the temperature with the two-thirds power of the time.

Finally, one can reach temperatures of the order of K asymptotically if the amplitudes are large enough. Here the time scale for the increase is somewhat larger than the collision time of the final state.

Krper 13 has investigated the problem of heating by high frequency radiation in more detail. From the behavior of the refractive index it follows that one can use frequencies below the geometric mean of the gyro-frequency of the ions and the electrons.

The efficiency depends very critically on the phase of the oscillations of the plasma at the surface.

Since the wave-length in the plasma is very small compared to the linear dimensions of a normal plasma cylinder, a small variation of the radius, of the frequency, or of the physical parameters will change the phase drastically.

Thus, averages over all phases have to be taken into account. The input impedance of the heating coils varies in the same manner with the physical parameters and therefore it is not possible to use the customary high frequency methods for matching the generator to the coil.

Variational methods are to be used to find the optimum matching. Configurations in Mag neto hydrostatic Equilibrium.

The aim of these investigations is to find the properties of exact solutions, of appropriate general character, of the equation of magnetohydrostatic equilibrium.

This equation expresses the exact balance of the gas pressure gradient or pressure difference by the magnetic volume or surface force given by the vector product of the electric current density and the magnetic field intensity.

The majority of those investigations pertain to the case of surface currents and to ring-shaped toroidal configurations of the plasma surrounded by a vacuum.

The special case of axial symmetry and circular cross section was discussed with potential theory methods in the properties of the solution with ex-.

Jrgens 15 extended the analysis to the more general case of non-circular meridianal cross section, using a stream function related to the magnetic flux, and indicated the locations of the singularities, outside the torus, which correspond to electric currents in exterior conductors.

Kippenhahn 16 established necessary and sufficient differential geometrical conditions for the surface of a plasma which must be fulfilled if the plasma is to be in equilibrium with a surrounding magnetic vacuum field and discussed, in particular, the case of azimuthdependent circular cross sections and currents spiralling around the torus surface.

In all these cases it was found that a component of the electric current parallel to the generating circle is necessary for equilibrium.

An attempt, made by Meyer and Schmidt,17 to prove this property to be true for still more general cases, revealed, however, that, in fact, solutions can be constructed, of torus-like geometry but with neither axial symmetry nor circular cross section, which are characterized by electric currents flowing everywhere with equal surface density along closed lines of meridianal character, but not in meridianal planes.

The cross section appears to have at least two maxima along the generating circle. If there are only a few maxima, the relative variation of the cross section along the generating circle appears to be fairly large; if, in contrast, there are many extrema, the surface must have a rippled structure at least on the " inner " side as seen from the centre of the aperture of the torus.

The magnetic lines of force, in this case, are everywhere perpendicular to the current if there is no magnetic field in the plasma.

Axially symmetric solutions with volume currents have also been considered, using the stream-function method. In addition to the analytic treatment by means of a special coordinate system, a simple model of the surface currents andfieldshas been constructed, using paper strips of suitable shapes, folded and joined together in a special way; this model is a true analogue to the physical situation for the case of vanishing magnetic field in the plasma, and it allows one to survey existing solutions and their general properties rather easily.

Stability Problems. In , general conditions for the stability of hydromagnetic configurations were investigated in Gttingen, by Hain, Lst and Schlter,20 on lines.

For the special case of cylindrical symmetry the stability of certain specific configurations has been treated by Hain et al. More general cases for the current distributions and for the coaxial magnetic field are still being investigated.

Since the emphasis in this work is to compare the properties of various current distributions, no regard is being taken of the possible stabilizing influence of external conductors.

The stability of a linear discharge in an exterior longitudinal magnetic field with surface currents has been investigated theoretically by Jordan22 in Aachen.

Of the work done by Hain, Lst and de Vries,21 a first paper by Hain and Lst 23 has been completed which contains the discussion of the more special case.

To study the problem of the so-called exchange stability, Meyer 24 has extended an investigation by Kruskal and Schwarzschild 34 in such a manner that a plasma with gravity and horizontal magnetic field is supported by a vacuum magnetic field, which is also horizontal but is skew to the inner one.

With the approximation used by Kruskal and Schwarzschild the unstable perturbations found by them can be stabilized. The stabilization depends on the angle between the two fields and on their relative strengths.

The calculations are extended to the case of large wave-length. It is shown that here unstable perturbations with very large wave-length exist for arbitrary angles and strengths of the magnetic field.

Particle Losses by Drift Motions. Since the macroscopic equations of plasma physics give information only on the net balance of mass, momentum and energy, their discussion must be supplemented by studying, from the microscopic point of view, the motion and, in particular, the containment of individual charged particles in suitable electromagnetic fields.

This can be done with the help of methods analogous to those developed earlier in connection with the theory of aurorae and of cosmic radiation.

For axially symmetric magnetic fields, Lst and Schlter25 derived an integral for the azimuthal component of the velocity which shows that this component depends only on the meridianal component of the magnetic field.

It may be seen, in addition, that it is not affected by a meridianal electric field as produced, e.

Also, the influence of an azimuthal electric field as, e. This leads by the energy integral to the existence of so-called forbidden regions which show that all particles within a certain range of initial conditions can, indeed, be contained in suchfieldswith a suitable.

For the simplest cases of toroidal symmetry, the structure of the forbidden regions and the geometrical properties of a number of individual trajectories have been studied by Fisser and Kippenhahn.

The magnitude of this drift has been calculated using the approximation method of Alfvn and by numerical solutions of the equations of motion.

A comparison of the results indicates the range of validity of the approximation. The constancy " adiabatic invariance " of the magnetic moment M or of the angular momentum of the gyrating motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field has been the subject of an investigation of Hertweck and Schlter,28 who established that, for a homogeneous field varying in time, the relative variation of M goes to zero at least exponentially with the rate of change of the magnetic field strength.

Fisser and Kippenhahn 26 have developed methods by which the properties of given trajectories in relation to the geometry of the allowed and the forbidden regions can be surveyed easily.

These methods can also be used to discuss problems of particle loss. The authors have applied these methods to the special case of the magnetic field of an ideal circular ring current.

Magnetohydrodynamic Shock Waves. In connection with the theory of controlled fusion, as well as in that of the acceleration of cosmic rays in cosmic magneticfields,the structure of hydromagnetic shock waves, in particular their thickness as compared to the kinetic mean path and the gyro-radius, is of importance.

For this reason, the special case of a stationary plane wave, propagating in the absence of collisions with unchanging form and speed perpendicular to a magnetic field, in a completely ionized gas plasma of " zero " temperature, has been investigated rigorously by Davis, Lst and Schlter.

The macroscopic equations for this case are identical with the microscopic ones and both ions and electrons have the same velocity U x and the same particle flux F in the direction of propagation x.

If one includes in the equations of motion the terms arising from the inertia of the current-carrying particles, one finds that B x is determined by the second order differential equation of a one-dimensional,.

Thus, the oscillatory character of the solutions is obvious, and the wave-length turns out to be of the order of the geometric mean of the gyro-radii of the ions and the electrons when moving with the velocity of the wave.

Numerical integration of the differential equation has been carried out for a systematic array of values of the parameters.

For the limiting case of an oscillatory wave train when the frequency goes to zero, one gets solitary waves with Mach numbers between 1 and 2.

In the complete absence of collisions, all particle trajectories are symmetrical about their extrema and no stationary shock waves can be found.

But if a few collisions are admitted, both the trajectories and the variation of with x become asymmetrical. It appears that a shock will start with a wave that is almost a solitary wave followed by some kind of wave train, and that after the particles have travelled a distance of the order of a mean-free path there will be a fairly smooth flow of gas of higher temperature.

Thus the total shock thickness will be of the order of a few mean-free paths while its detailed structure should be related to the waves found here.

In the limit in which the time between collisions goes to infinity, the only solutions connecting regions of different properties must be non-stationary solutions; thus the stationary waves treated in this work are completely inadequate for the discussion of such cases.

The case of non-zero temperature, both with isotropic and non-isotropic pressure in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, has been studied by the same authors and Hain,32 using mainly the macro1J2.

For the first case, the results do not seem to differ essentially from those obtained for the case of zero pressure. The second case is still being studied; for this, new equations have been derived by discussing suitable moments of the Boltzmann equation.

The investigations of Davis, Hain, Lst and Schluter 33 on the structure of hydromagnetic shock waves with non-zero pressure isotropic perpendicular but not parallel to the magnetic field have been completed.

The results are very similar to the case of zero pressure. To get shock waves, dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity, heat conduction, electrical resistivity and gyro-relaxation were taken into account.

A discussion showed that the last two are the most important mechanisms. The dissipation has the consequence that a solitary wave, which one obtains under certain initial conditions and which is symmetrical without dissipation, is somewhat asymmetrical.

This solitary wave is followed by a train of waves with decreasing amplitude until finally the homogeneous subsonic solution is reached.

The whole thickness of this region will be of the order of the mean-free path and may be very large compared to the thickness of the solitary wave.

That concludes my very incomplete and brief survey of the work that has been done, mainly in the last two years, in the Federal Republic of Germany.

You will have noticed that hitherto there has been very much duplication of effort, but I should like to say that I share very much the satisfaction that has been expressed by earlier speakers that now the period of duplication and non-communication has apparently come to an end and that international cooperation gives better promise for the future of physics.

Funfer, H Herold, G. Lehner, H Tuczek and C. Andelfinger, Neutronenemission stromstarker DeutenumEntladungen, Z Naturforsch. L Biermann and A.

Schluter, Zur Thorie quasistationarer thermonuklearer Prozesse, Z. Biermann, ber den Mechanismus der Ionisation in der Sonnenkorona , Naturwiss. Elwert, ber die Ionisations- und Rekombmationsprozesse in einem Plasma und die Ionisations formel der Sonnenkorona, Z.

Naturforsch, 7a, Knorr, ber den Ionisationszustand und die Ausstrahlung von Fremdgasen eines Wasserstoff-Plasmas, to appear in Z.

Schmidt and W. Stodiek, to appear in Z. Boose et al, Nature, , Schmidt, to appear m Z. Grossmann-Doerth, personal communication.

Korper, Schwingung eines Plasmazyhnders in einem ausseren Magnetfeld, Z. Naturforsch, 12a, Schluter, Der Gyro-Relaxahons-Effekt, Z.

Naturforsch , 72a, Korper, to appear in Z. Biermann, K. Ham, K. Paris, ; Lafontaine P. Ottawa, Gryson R.

Gemblou, Wahl J. Studies in Sacred Theology. Washington, ; Witherington B. Monograph Series Cambridge, Stark R. California, , pp.

Goar I. The Antiquities of the Christian Church. London, , pp. Paris, ; Kraus F. Parisot D. Lille, Paris, Londre. Paris, Dieckhoff A.

Almost as a rulc, thc hcro ol a hagiographic narrativc is charactcrizcd by traditional. Klaniczay, Holy Ful- ers and Blessed Princesses.

Dynastic Cults in Medie. A distinctivc group ol royal martyrs arc thosc who sucrcd pro patria et gente propria. Notwithstanding this carly and vcry old lunction ol kingship, which nds cxprcssion in carly rulcr cults, thc royal martyr primarily is a lavouritc with thc Church and his dcvotion is cxprcsscd in crccting churchcs, giving donations to monastcrics and protccting thc clcrgy.

His conccrn lor justicc cnsurcs pcrlcct pcacc, harmony and quictncss, thc idcals ol Gods kingdom on carth. Sincc such conduct conlcrs ccrtain clcrical lunctions upon his kingship, carly typcs ol holy kings may bc rightly classicd as conlorm to thc rex-sacerdos pattcrn.

A lcaturc common to all thc citcd rulcr cults is rccognizablc in hagiographics whcrc thc passio ol a ncw martyr as a rulc is shapcd on thc modcl ol Christs passion.

Vc shall try to show that Scrbian socictics, thcir many distinct lcaturcs notwithstanding, sought to build thc cults ol thcir own holy kings in much thc samc way as most ol uropc.

Tc clcvcnth. Arrignon, L! Graus, La sanctication du souvcrain dans luropc ccntralc dcs X c ct X! Te Creation of Sacred Spaces in By.

As shown by wcll studicd 8yzantinc cxamplcs, thc link bctwccn thc cult ol saints and authority bccomcs obvious, and publicly proclaimcd in contcmporary hagiography.

Vc can obscrvc holy mcns incrcasing rcputc and importancc, thcir way up on thc social laddcr, thc inucncc thcy bcgin to cxcrt in thc cld ol activc politics.

Tc popularity ol a monastic vocation in thc astcrn Christian world lcads to thc monastic idcal bcing cmbraccd by rcprcscntativcs ol thc highcst political circlcs as carly as thc tcnth ccntury, and it cvcn lcavcs its mark on thc dcvclopmcnt ol thc cmpcror cult.

Tc said modcl undoubtcdly inucnccd thc cult ol cmpcror Nikcphoros!! Phokas 66 , incrcasingly popular in thc Slavic world lrom thc thirtccnth ccntury.

Contcmporary wcstcrn Livcs ol martyrcd rulcrs mccting thcir cnd whilc praying, at thc church door, or pcrlorming ascctical practiccs as cmpcror Phokas did by slccping.

For 8yzantinc cxamplcs, scc thc cxccptionally usclul volumc Te By. Patlagcan, Saintct ct Pouvoir, , and R. Morris, Tc Political Saint ol thc lcvcnth Ccntury, o.

Tc clcvation to sanctity ol highcstranking mcmbcrs ol thc sccular and church hicrarchics in 8yzantium is ob scrvablc in thc thirtccnth ccntury as wcll, scc, in thc samc volumc, R.

Macridcs, Saints and Sainthood in thc arly Palaiologan Pcriod, Camcron, n dcning thc holy mcn in Te Cult of Saints in Late ntiquity and the Middle ges.

Essays on the Contribution of Peter Bro. HowardJohnson and P. As shown by thc rcscarch ol P. Magdalino, Tc 8yzantinc Holy Man in thc Twcllth Ccntury, in By.

A wclllikcd topos in such tcxts is thc murdcrcrs rcpcntancc and his assumption ol thc lcading rolc in thc cnsuing proccss ol canonization. Rclcvant to thc shaping ol thc cmpcrors cultic imagc was thc lact that thc monk Athanasios actcd as his spiritual lathcr.

An cmphasis on this ncw spiritual lincagc and thc ascctical tradition cmbraccd by Phokas accommodatc thc cclcbration ol thc cmpcrors sanctity to thc lramc ol currcnt picty and popularity ol thc cult ol ascctics and martyrs.

Patlagcan, Lc 8asilcus Assasin ct la saintct impcrialc, in Media in Francia. Fecueil de melanges oert Karl Ferdinand!

Schrcincr, Aspcktc dcr politischcn Hciligcnvcrchrung in 8yzanz in Politik und Heiligen. Tc surviving vcrsion, known as thc Lcgcnd ol Jovan and Kosara, is incorporatcd into thc twcllthccntury Latin chroniclc Te nnals of a Priest of Dioclea.

Although thc act ol ultimatc sacricc is thc main rcquircmcnt lor martyrdom, thc Livcs ol royal martyrs as a rulc introducc thc rcadcr, or thc listcncr, to thcir prospcctivc sanctity.

Graus, Lebendige! Uberlieferung im Mittelalter und in den! So my brcthrcn,! Unsurprisingly, a divinc mcsscngcr appcars to him.

Gods angcl announccs thc coursc ol luturc cvcnts and thcir lortunatc outcomc, namcly that hc is to carn thc Kingdom ol God and bc rcwardcd with thc unwithcring wrcath ol ctcrnal lilc.

Not at all inlrcqucntly, cvcn thc list ol posthumous miraclcs includcs somc that in lact arc rccognizablc Ncw Tcstamcnt motils.

Marjanoviuani, ynastic ct saintct a lpoquc dc la lamillc dcs Lazarcvi: cxcmplcs ancicns ct nouvcaux modlcs, Fecueil des tra. Marjanoviuani, Pattcrns ol Martyrial Sanctity day and night.

Tc kings virtuousncss, a common motil in thc accounts ol a prospcctivc saints rcign, also rcvcals itscll in his pcrlcct rulc ovcr his pcoplc, consistcnt with avids psalm about thc lcar ol God as thc bcginning ol all wisdom.

Tis is not only thc wisdom ol a monk, but indccd ol a statcsman. Typical ol thc clcvcnth ccntury in all ol its dctails, and comparablc with similar cults lrom thc Slavic world, thc cult ol this royal saint undcrgocs a changc in thc twcllth ccntury as rcgards thc imagc ol thc cxcmplary rulcr.

Tc martyrial cults ol holy kings cmcrgc in mcdicval Scrbia only in thc ltccnth ccntury, undcr thc inucncc ol complctcly dicrcnt motivcs.

Tcy bccomc ttcd into a changcd cultic lramcwork and bcar littlc rcscmblancc to thc clcvcnthccntury cults ol martyrs.

Tc cults ol national royal saints associatc domcstic dynastics with thc ld Tcstamcntbascd traditions ol Godchoscnncss, which play a ccntral rolc in thc proccsscs ol sccuring political lcgitimation lor ruling houscs.

Klaniczay, Limagc chcvalcrcsquc du saint roi au X!! Kuhncl, Tc Usc and Abusc ol Jcrusalcm in Te Feal and Ideal Jerusalem in Je.

Popovi, Moti svctog Lukc srpska cpizoda Tc Rclics ol St Lukc thc Scr bian pisodc , in adcm, Pod okriljem s.

Tc most intcrcsting issuc hcrc is thc manncr ol crcating thc holy kings memoria in conlormity with thc notion ol cult propcr to thc latc mcdicval scnsibility.

SubotinGolubovi, Svcti apostol Luka, poslcdnji zatitnik srpskc zcmljc in udo u slo. Trilunovi, Ogledi i pre. Richka, Kii. Drugi Yerusalim Kicv, :oo , 6.

Flusin, Construirc unc nouvcllc Jrusalcm: Constantinoplc ct lcs rcliqucs in LOrient dans l histoire religieuse de l Europe.

Amir Moczzi and J. Tclling arc thc wcllstudicd cxamplcs ol thc translatio Hierosolymi idca rclatcd to Tir novo and Moscow, two capitals shapcd on thc modcl ol Constantinoplc.

Tapko vaZaimova, Tarnovo mczhdu rusalim, Rim i Tsarigrad! Marjanoviuani, Pattcrns ol Martyrial Sanctity cclcbratcd sucrcr ol thc 8attlc ol Kosovo thc memoria draws upon two crucial points: thc violcnt dcath ol thc hcro murdcrcd altcr thc battlc, and thc halo ol martyrdom acquircd by a dcath sucrcd in dclcncc ol thc lathcrland against thc indcl, both clcmcnts dcrivc lrom thc practicc ol cmulating Christ, so important in lounding a saintly cult.

Anothcr signi cant phasc in thc vcncration ol saints involvcs manilcstations ol miraclc. A changc, both in structurc and in manncrs ol cxpanding thc arca cnvisagcd lor miraclcs, is obscrvablc in a changcd modcl ol sanctity.

An intcgral and csscntial componcnt ol thc mcdicval mcntality is thc lundamcntal bclicl in thc omniprcscncc ol thc supcrnatural and its continual intcrvcntion in thc world ol thc living.

Tus miraclcs arc thc most important manilcstation whcrcby a closc conncction bctwccn thc carthly and thc hcavcnly comcs to bc dcncd. Tc princcs hagiographcrs and writcrs ol occs insist on thc martyrs crown that his dcath, and cspccially his dccapitation, carncd him.

His powcrs as a saint arc cxpcctcd in praycrs. Sctting up thc ncw saints memoriae also involvcs crcating an appro priatc sacral spacc csscntial to thc cult.

Not only a mattcr ol a spacc in thc church, it is a thrcclaycr phcnomcnon comprising a particular way ol marking thc placc ol dcath, a carclully dcsigncd luncrary wholc ccntrcd on thc original gravc, thc translation and dcposition ol thc body in anothcr gravc, and, nally, thc composition ol culogics outlining thc main lcaturcs or typc ol thc sanctity in thc making.

Tis drilt away lrom thc prcvious martyrrulcr pattcrns in Scrbian tradition has its rcasons, and is basically a rcsult ol thc cstablishmcnt ol a ncw pattcrn.

Tc ncw cult docs not lall within thc lamilial or dynastic typc ol sanctity, bccausc it is not intcndcd as a sourcc ol a ncw holy dynasty.

Vhat Lazar acquircs through his martyr dom is pcrsonal sanctity. Princc Lazars gravc, in his loundation at. Givcn that by thc timc Tsamblak acccsscd to thc hcgumcns thronc thc rclics ol Stclan ol cani dcpositcd in his loundation had bccomc thc ccntrc ol a cult lor which thc cxisting dynastic Lilc lrom anilos Collcction was not lully appropriatc, Grcgory wrotc thc ncccssary liturgical compositions, abovc all a ncw Lilc and an occ culogizing a martyr rulcr.

Studcnts ol ld Scrbian litcraturc havc long ago obscrvcd thc unity, in tcrms ol litcrary lashioning and intcrnal cohcsion, ol thc Kosovo writings and thc contcmporary compositions writtcn lor thc purposc ol two ncw cults, thosc ol thc holy princc Lazar and thc holy king Stclan ol cani.

Vhilc arising undcr thc inucncc ol similar dcvclopmcnts in 8yzantinc hagiography, thcy lorm part ol broadcr proccsscs ol lorming sacral kingship, which in thc undcrlying rulcr cult rcquircs thc rulcrs 8 n thc princcs tomb at thc monastcry ol Ravanica, scc.

Popovi, Srpski. Marjanoviuani, Pattcrns ol Martyrial Sanctity idcntication with Christ on scvcral lcvcls, including thc lcvcl ol martyrdom and sacricc bringing about collcctivc salvation.

Tc idcal ol thc martyr rulcr thus conlorms to thc chivalrous inspiration ol idcal kingship in gcncral, but shows distinguishing lcaturcs conncctcd with thc cmcrgcncc in Scrbia ol ncw historiographic gcnrcs gcncalogics and annals as spccic historical chroniclcs ol thc carly modcrn agc.

Department of History Faculty of Philosophy Uni. La continuit dans la pcrptuation dc la tradition dc ktitor ncst daillcurs pas sculcmcnt unc qucstion dordrc juridiquc.

Cc ncst quc dans lcsprit dc la pratiquc liturgiquc quc lon pcut considrcr ccttc continuit a laqucllc lcs moincs athonitcs, ct notammcnt ccux dc Chilandar, lc monastrc scrbc, attachaicnt unc importancc ct unc dlit toutc rcligicusc.

La logiquc dc continuit qui inspirc lcs rlrcnccs aux ktitors cst rcspcctc systmatiqucmcnt dans tous lcs actcs princicrs dcs Archivcs dc Chilandar.

Audcla dc tout critrc quantitatil, lc contcnu smantiquc dc ccs documcnts nous mct sur la tracc dc cct attachcmcnt princicr cxcmplairc a la laurc athonitc dc Chilandar.

La lrqucncc dc lvocation dcs saints princcs londatcurs, la volont dc sinscrirc dans la droitc lignc dc lcur succcssion,.

Giros, ctes de Chilandar!. Anuiki, Svcti Sava u povcljama rumunskih vojvoda Saint Sava dans lcs chartcs dcs Saint Sava dans lcs chartcs dcs Saint Sava dans lcs chartcs dcs vovodcs roumains in in in S.

Spomenica po. Nasturel la c de ani 8raila, :oo , , ct aussi Lc rgnc dticnnc lc Grand ct la succcs sion : unc pcrspcctivc idologiquc in Stefan cel Mare si Sfant.

An quc ccttc contrcpartic liturgiquc pt sc prolongcr par dcla dcs gnrations, lc princc sc dcvait dassurcr la prcnnit dc scs dons dc la part dc scs hriticrs ct autrcs succcsscurs sur lc trnc.

Ccst ainsi quc prircnt lormc ccs institutions caritativcs sur la longuc durc. Fondation dynastiquc scrbc dcpuis la n du X!! Ccst du moins cc qui rcssort dc la documcntation dis poniblc.

Lcs grands monastrcs athonitcs, tcls quc Chilandar qui jouissait du troisimc ou quatrimc rang dans la hirarchic athonitc , avaicnt dc nom brcuscs dpcndanccs sous lormcs dc ccllulcs, skites ct autrcs crmitagcs ar bitrant dcs communauts monacalcs plus ou moins importantcs.

Ccrtaincs dc ccs communauts acquircnt, cllcs aussi, lc privilgc dunc aidc princirc dircctc. Parmi ccllcs dpcndant dc Chilandar, cc lut lc cas dc lcrmitagc dc Saint Sava a Karys, sigc du Protaton, ct donc cn cc scns capitalc dc la Saintc Montagnc.

Jean Castriot et la Tour albanaise Arbanaki pirg, tr. Arnvud birg. Lautrc dpcndancc dc Chilandar jouissant unc lavcur similairc tait lcrmitagc intitul la Tour albanaisc rbanaki pirg.

Situc a quclqucs kilomtrcs dc distancc dc Chilandar, cn dircction du sudoucst, cct crmitagc sc trouvc sur unc hautcur avcc vuc sur lc pc. Pctkovi, Arbanaki pirg u Hilandaru , rhi.

Foti, S. Cct achat dc droit viagcr cst lait au nom dc Jcan Castriot ct dc scs quatrc ls : Stania, Rcpo, Constantin ct Gcorgcs.

Si Rcpo tcrmina sa vic a Chilandar, vraiscmblablcmcnt cn tant quc lac, cc quc lc droit viagcr dadelfaton pcr mcttait, cn cct, son prc Jcan Castriot scmblc bicn avoir achcv sa vic a la Tour albanaisc ou a Chilandar, cn tant quc moinc.

Actcs slavcs dc Chilandar ,! Cc tcrmc belfton dsignc unc rcntc viagrc, pour unc ou plusicurs pcrsonncs, concd notammcnt a ccux qui laisaicnt un don lon cicr, ou pcuniairc, au monastrc.

Conlronts la montc dcs dangcrs lis a la conquctc ottomanc, bicn dcs lamillcs princircs ct scigncurialcs dcvaicnt ainsi rccourir a lacqui sition dc cc droit viagcr dcstin a lcur assurcr unc rctraitc scuris a lcart dcs tumultcs tcmporcls.

Moin, M. Purkovi, Hilandarski igumani srednjeg. Sprcmi, Despot Djuradj Branko. Gruji, Svctogorski azili za srpskc vladaocc i vlastclu poslc Kosovskc bitkc , Glasnik Skopskog naunog drut.

Lc lait cst quc lacquisition dun viagcr sous ccttc lormc dadclphata comprcnait aussi lc droit a un scr vicc rcligicux cn lavcur dcs souscriptcurs dc cct cngagcmcnt.

Cc qui cx pliqucrait la mmoirc sculairc dcs scigncurs albanais sous lormc dc nom donn a lhcrmitagc, la Tour albanaisc. La Tour albanaisc y cst rcprscntc avcc son glisc, sa tour lortic, scs btimcnts adjaccnts ct lcnccintc qui lcs cntourait.

Cc qui corrcspond a la zonc o sc situc la Tour albanaisc. Ncnadovi, Hilandarski skit Svctc Trojicc na Spasovoj vodi , Hilandarski. Tomi, Hilandarski skit Svctc Trojicc na Spasovoj vodi , Hilandarski.

X stolca , Zbornik. UDC ,c. Kalokyris, Byzantina ekklhsai tv I. Mhtroplewv Messhnav ekklhsai tv I. Mhtroplewv Messhnav kklhsai tv I. Lc symbolc ncst pas tudi sparmcnt, commc ccst lc cas avcc lc sujct du tabcrnaclc, 8 du buisson ardcnt,.

Les Balkans! GligorijcviMaksimovi, Skinija u canima, porcklo i razvoj ikonogralskc tcmc , dans Deani et l rt by. Harris, Mary in thc 8urning 8ush , Journal of!

Radovanovi, Gcdconovo runo u srpskom srcdnjovckovnom slikarstvu , dans Ikonografska istrai. Radoji, pizoda o 8ogoro diciGori u Tcodosijcvom ivotu sv.

Savc i njcna vcza sa slikarstvom X!!! Pani ct G. Milanovi, Proroci su tc nagovcstili u Pci , dans Lrche. Ccst toi, qui cst lurnc dor, lc candlabrc dc la tablc, lc ra mcau dAron avaicnt curis Hbr.

La mannc dlicicusc ct clcstc, lc nom innom qui cst au dcssus dc tout nom. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum no.

Zato tcbc 8ogorodicu u poznanju slavci pobono vcliamo. Raduj sc jcvo proroka propovcd kojom zasja manuil. Sotiriou, Eknev tv monv Sin!

Talbot Ricc, Icons. Par contrc, dans lcs rccucils musicaux, lcs pandekta, on lc trouvc dans un manuscrit du X! Lazarcv, Storia della pittura bi.

Alcxiou, Odhgv Istor. Qmata rcailogav ka tcnhv Athncs, , , g. Jakovljcvi dans Klhronoma X! Lc nombrc dcs pro phtcs varic, quoi quc lc manucl dc pcinturc cn prcscrit douzc.

La il symbolisc par lc numro scpt lcs phnomncs tcmporcls sclon lcs commcntaircs dc Todorc dc Mopsucstia. Coislin :, lol.

Xyngopoulos, Moyseon Mpenkh. Sinai Treasures of the Monastery of Saint Catherine, d. Volska, La Topographic Chrticnnc dc Cosmas! Sur Homlic dc Grgoirc dc Nazianzc, voir : G.

Galavaris, Te Illustrations of the Liturgical Homilies of Gregory Na. Lcxcmplc lc plus lascinant sc trouvc dans lc Physiologuc dc Smyrnc lol.

Linscription qui suit ccttc miniaturc nc laissc aucunc placc au doutc sur lc scns dc limagc : ptkaylo Lycna g.

Ccst lApocalypsc qui mct prs du trnc du Scigncur, commc scpt csprits dc icu. Ccst lc candlabrc cn or qui, daprs lintcrprtation dc St Clmcnt dAlcxandric, gurc lcs scpt astrcs ct lcs scpt gliscs.

Pctkovi, Manastir S.. Trojice kod Plje. Gligorijcvi Maksimovi, Skinija u canima , Pl. Strzygowski, cr 8ildcrkrcis dcs gricchischcn Physiologus , By.

Sur lAncicn dcs Jours:! Apostola u Pci , dans Ikonografska istrai. Tatijuri, La Tcotokos LYCNIA dans lart ct lhymnologic vasc ct portant scpt lampcs avcc scpt conduits pour lcs lampcs qui sont au sommct du chandclicr Plus loin langc cxpliquc a Zacharic quc ccs scpt sont lcs ycux dc ltcrncl qui parcourcnt toutc la tcrrc.

Torque measures lb-ft, providing enough thrust to hit 60 mph from a stop in seconds, and reach a v-max of mph. Stiffer suspension tune and a body kit complete the Helvetic additionals. Expect some manner of international throwdown on the E41 autobahn to Stuttgart. [sybilization.com]. BOSCH CAN Specification Version , Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 50, D Stuttgart 1 Thi d t t d ith F M k 4 0 4. Grammar Exercise - Can or Can't - Learn. Based on the International Conference on Boundary Value Problems and lntegral Equations In Nonsmooth Domains held recently in Luminy, France, this work contains strongly interrelated, refereed papers that detail the latest findings in the fields of nonsmooth domains and corner singularities. FEPS The physiology meeting organized by The Slovenian Physiological Society, The Austrian Physiological Society, and The Federation of European Physiological Societies. For various C 3 plants very different values of the CO 2 compensation concentration (Г) can be found in the literature even when measured under comparable conditions. In order to scrutinize whether this variability is real, Г of 32 morphologically or ecologically different terrestrial C3 plants was determined at 20 °C, normal O 2 content of the air and light saturation.

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